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In case the student does not have a preference of his/her own medicine keychain order lithium 300mg without a prescription, topics are to be suggested by the faculty who ensure that there is generally an equitable distribution of the postgraduates among the faculty symptoms 8 days after iui purchase lithium 150mg with visa. It is obvious that the thesis or dissertation will be on a topic on which there is general interest medicine river animal hospital purchase lithium 300 mg, expertise and facilities with the faculty. Interdepartmental collaboration should be encouraged to widen the scope and outlook of the research proposal and training. However, it is suggested that one senior member of the faculty be given the chief responsibility for organising and coordinating this programme and any enquiries may be made or assistance taken, if necessary, from him/her. It is appreciated that individual institutions may find it convenient to follow a different pattern of posting. Extramural postings to reputed institutions or to other institutions to learn techniques not available in the parent institution and also to acquire knowledge and skill in some aspects of the course may be encouraged. Internal (Formative) Assessment Internal Assessment should in reality be done everyday to assess the training and to identify the weakness as well as the strength of the candidate. Thus appropriate corrective methods can be adopted at the right time so that a well-trained and competent pathologist worthy of a postgraduate degree is available for the society. However a formal assessment can be recorded at the end of every posting and reviewed every six months. A logbook should be maintained recording the duration of posting, the period of absence, if any, skills performed, and remarks if any by the teacher/faculty member. The logbook should also record journal clubs, seminars attended and partaken as well as undergraduate teaching activities the candidate has participated. The following points may be considered in the scheme for evaluation of presentations such as seminars and journal clubs: (i) Choice of article/topic (unless specifically allotted) (ii) Completeness of presentation (iii) Clarity and cogency of presentation (iv) Understanding of the subject and ability to convey the same (v) Whether relevant references have been consulted (vi) Ability to convey points in favour and against the subject under discussion (vii) Use of audio-visual aids (viii) Ability to answer questions Course and Curriculum of M D Pathology 199 (ix) Time scheduling (x) Overall performance In the case of specific postings similar points may be assessed with regard to knowledge and skills. It is also recommended that the candidate be assessed with regard to the following: • Ability to get along with colleagues • Conduct with patients and staff 9. Grading may be done in one of the following ways: (i) Awarding actual marks (ii) Awarding scores: 0 = Poor 1 = Below average 2 = Average 3 = Above average 4 = Good (iii) Awarding grades A+ = 90% 100% A = 80% 89% A = 75% 79% B+ = 70% 74% B = 60% 69% B = 50% 59% C = < 50% 9. The grades must be endorsed by more than one faculty member or an average obtained by pooling the grades of different faculty members. This must be conveyed to the candidate periodically (atleast once in every six months) so that the candidate knows where he or she stands. It must be understood that different institutions may have different schemes of internal assessment (including periodical tests. The above scheme is a suggestion that can be modified according to convenience and improved upon. Please see Appendices on page 31 for a sample of some of the Scoring/ Grading schemes. University (Summative) Assessment the university or summative examination shall be held at the end of three years of the training programme. This would include assessment of the thesis or dissertation and a formal examination on the theoretical and practical aspects of the speciality of Pathology. The thesis/dissertation should be evaluated by atleast two external examiners well versed in the topic studied. The results of the evaluation should be available prior to the practical examinations. For the formal examinations there should be two external and two internal examiners. The Theory Papers shall be set preferably by the external examiner suitably moderated by the internal examiners. The following is a guideline of the aspects to be covered: (i) Clinical Pathology: Discussion of a clinical case history Plan relevant investigations of the above case Two investigations should be performed Complete urinalysis (ii) Haematology: Discuss haematology cases given the relevant history Plan relevant investigations Perform atleast two tests preferably including coagulation exercise Identify electrophoresis strips, osmotic fragility charts etc. Examine, report and discuss ten cases given the history and relevant blood smears and/ or bone marrow aspirate smears (iii) Transfusion: Perform blood grouping Medicine Perform the necessary exercise given a relevant history (iv) Histopathology: Examine, report and discuss ten to twelve histopathology Cytopathology and three to five cytopathology cases given the relevant history and slides Perform a Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and any special stain on a paraffin section Report on a frozen section (v) Autopsy: Given a case history and relevant organs (with or without slides) give a list of anatomical diagnosis in a autopsy case. Viva-voce is expected to be conducted at every stage of the practical examination. Additionally a formal grand viva-voce may be held at the end of the practical examination. Grading rather than actual marking is to be preferred because in a post-graduate examination, which is currently subjective to a large extent, it may be extremely difficult to differentiate performance differences within ranges of 1% to 5%.
Acute complicated rhinosinusitis with headache or facial pain or 1-7 swelling or orbital pain or purulent nasal discharge and one of the following A treatment plan for depression buy lithium now. Orbital cellulitis (may include but not limited to swelling of the eye medicine 0829085 buy genuine lithium, proptosis medications used for anxiety order lithium line, difficulty moving the eye) 2. Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis with 4 or more episodes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis without signs or symptoms of 1,3,4 rhinosinusitis between episodes within 1 year and one of the following: A. Chronic rhinosinusitis – symptoms lasting 12 weeks or longer of varying intensity and not responding to antibiotics taken for at least 7 days and one of the following (Both A and B) A. Suspected sinus or nasopharyngeal tumor [One of the following] this may include but is not limited to the following: • Inverting papilloma • Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) • Juvenile angiofibroma • Squamous cell carcinoma • Adenocarcinoma • Adenoid cystic carcinoma • Odontogenic keratocyst A. Cranial nerve involvement (is indicative of skull base extension and advanced disease) 7. Recurrent unilateral otitis media or recurrent sinusitis after appropriate antibiotic therapy E. Documented history of inverting papilloma Page 58 of 794 11,12 V. Suspected submandibular or parotid duct stone and non diagnostic ultrasound [One of the following] 1. Suspected or known malignancy with new signs or symptoms related to the maxillofacial region C. Cough, work up of chronic and a chest x-ray demonstrating no cause for the cough or treatment of the findings on the chest x 13,14 ray failed to relieve the cough (cough lasting more than 3 weeks and all of the following) A. Endocrine laboratory studies should be performed prior to considering advanced imaging including Prolactin levels; thyroid function levels should also be checked to evaluate for untreated or inadequately treated hypothyroidism as a cause of hyperprolactinemia and pituitary hyperplasia. Dental/Periodontal/Maxillofacial Imaging (All requests will be forwarded to Medical Director for review. Maxillofacial bone graft planning Page 62 of 794 12. Some payers do not include orthodontic clinical conditions such as replacement of teeth lost due to caries or periodontal disease, non-trauma related dental implantology, or endodontic treatment not related to trauma to the natural tooth in their coverage policies 1. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children aged 1-18 years, Pediatrics, 2013; 132:2262 e280. The diagnosis and management of sinusitis: A practice parameter update, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2005; 116:S13-47. Page 63 of 794 15. Fine needle aspiration consistent with metastatic disease (carcinoma, sarcoma) or lymphoma G. Suspected nasopharyngeal tumor (For known cancers, see V below) [One of the following] A. Positive endoscopy Page 65 of 794 3. Cranial nerve involvement (is indicative of skull base involvement and advanced disease) 11-15 V. Head and neck cancer [One of the following] Includes but not limited to: Cancer of the arytenoid cartilage Cancer of the epiglottis Cancer of the hard palate Cancer of the hypopharynx Cancer of the infraglottic region Cancer of the lip Cancer of the glottic larynx Cancer of the nasopharynx Cancer of the oral cavity Cancer of the oropharynx Cancer of the paranasal sinuses including ethmoid, maxillary Cancer of the pharynx Cancer of the salivary gland(s) Cancer of the soft palate Cancer of the supraglottic larynx Cancer of the tongue Cancer of the tonsils Cancer of the vocal cord(s) Mucosal melanoma *Thyroid and parathyroid cancers do not fall into this category. Cervical lymph node biopsy consistent with head and neck malignancy but no known primary B. Deteriorating clinical condition with known head and neck cancer such as but not limited to new neck mass including new nodes, new hoarseness, weight loss, bleeding, dysphagia D. Uncomplicated Pharyngitis or Tonsillitis should undergo conservative therapy including antibiotics, if appropriate. Recurrent Laryngeal Palsy/Hoarseness – the following can be considered with unilateral vocal cord/fold palsy identified by 41 laryngoscopy: ® A. Hodgkins disease Page 67 of 794 a.
This collaborative work is the result of many years of cooperation and friendship between the two editors symptoms white tongue order lithium with paypal. Through this collaboration medicine vile buy lithium line, the foundations have been established for future international endeavors and for permanent human presence in space symptoms quad strain purchase 150mg lithium amex. Pestov (Russia) Acknowledgments the authors and editors of this volume would like to thank the many U. Their expertise facilitated the flow of information between authors and ultimately the publication of this volume. Their close collaboration with the series editors, authors, and translators has greatly increased the quality of the volumes content. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors includes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the crewmembers work: the risks involved in space flight, changes in circadian rhythms, and intragroup interactions. The physical and emotional stress and fatigue that develop under these conditions also can disturb human health and performance. In addition to these factors, the risk also exists that crewmembers will develop various illnesses during flight. The risk of illness is no less during space flight than on Earth, and may actually be greater for some classes of diseases. The overall goals of the medical flight support system are to minimize the physiological effects of destabilizing factors, to maintain crew health and performance, and to solve problems regarding medical flight safety. Although the forms in which medical support programs are organized may differ between Russia and the United States, both countries involve groups of medical specialists working toward the common goals of medical support before, during, and after space flights. This volume discusses these goals, which are achieved by ensuring that: • the initial health status of the crewmembers conforms with accepted medical standards (via selection and training); • cosmonaut and astronaut health is maintained throughout the preflight period (via medical monitoring, prophylaxis, and diagnosis and treatment of diseases); • crewmember health status is stabilized during flight (via operational medical monitoring, in-depth examinations, medical aid, prophylactic intervention, psychological support); • optimal working conditions and schedules are provided (via well-designed work stations, work/rest schedules, and performance monitoring); • crews can be rescued in emergency situations (e. This set of medical support measures was designed to maintain human health and performance capacity, and thereby contribute to flight safety and success. The goals of this system can be attained only through the systematic use of such measures. Chapter 1 discusses the medical selection process through which applicants are selected to become astronauts and cosmonauts. For example, while the American process selects to exclude those with significant health risks during space flight, the Russian selection approach identifies those who will perform best in and adapt quickly to space flight conditions. Although differing approaches also exist between Russian and American approaches to crew-training systems, they share many fundamental concepts and practices. Because of their basic similarities, Chapter 2 discusses mainly the Russian experiences with crew training.
If the bones are Pre and post-op dermabrasion of traumatic forehead scars from a car displaced medications not to take after gastric bypass order lithium with paypal, surgery (open reduction and inter accident symptoms gallbladder buy 150mg lithium otc. Some maxillomandibular fractures can be managed without sur gery (closed) medicine that makes you throw up lithium 150mg discount, using temporary ?braces? (arch bars) or a sof diet. Septorhinoplasty Perhaps the most common form of facial plastic surgery that an otolaryn gologist performs is septorhinoplasty. In this operation, the deviated sep tum is straightened, and the outside of the nose may also be changed in form through various surgical maneuvers. The most common procedure is straightening the septum (septoplasty), which is performed through the nostrils and entails realignment of the septum into the midline. The most important part of rhinoplasty is maintaining or improving the airway, so a septo plasty is ofen performed as part of this procedure. Common indications for rhinoplasty include pre vious trauma, with resulting crooked nose as well as a dorsal hump. Many patients undergo rhino plasty to achieve better proportion between the size of their nose and their face, or to improve the shape of the tip alone in an otherwise attractive feature. Rhinoplasty can be accomplished using incisions that are entirely inside the nose (closed) 89 or combined with a small incision across the colu mella (open) for improved access for placing grafs and sutures. Facial Rejuvenation Rhytidectomy Rhytidectomy or ?facelifing? is a much more common procedure than in the past. Tere are many variations in technique, but most involve an incision hidden around the ear, with undermining of the skin and tightening of the muscle and tissue layers underneath. This is commonly combined with other procedures for more thorough facial rejuvenation. Bulges that occur below the eyes consist of through enhancement of self orbital fat pressing against a weakened orbital sep esteem may be even more dramatic. Occasionally, the eyebrows lie below the level of the superior orbital rim and may be a part of the problem as well. This is called brow ptosis and can cause an apparent excess of skin in the upper lid. Elevation of the brow with a brow lif can reduce redundant skin of the eyelids and is an important part of facial rejuvenation in some patients. Nonsurgical Facial Rejuvenation Improvement of facial wrinkles (rhytids) can be achieved through several methods. One of the most popular treatments is the injection of medicines 90 known as neurotoxins to weaken facial muscle contractions and improve the wrinkles caused by them. Fillers can also be used to restore volume to the lips and other areas that have lost volume as part of the aging process. Chemical peels and laser resurfacing remove the outer layers of the skin, and the new skin formed with healing has less sun damage and wrinkles. Many types of lasers are now available to treat a variety of cosmetic concerns in the ofce setting with little down time for the patient. Improvement in sun spots, birthmarks, and unwanted hair are just a few of the problems commonly treated. All of these procedures are part of the ofce-based practice of many otolaryngologists or facial plastic surgeons. Otoplasty Some people have ears that stand out further than normal from their head. This is usually congenital, and anatomically is due to an unfurled antihelical fold, a deep conchal bowl, or both. Many children are viciously teased by their peers because of their prominent ears. Surgical correction of the ears is a relatively simple and very satisfying operation. Interestingly, many third party payers feel this is ?cosmetic? surgery and refuse to pay for it.
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