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Classification: Gold Foil treatment jokes purchase thyroxine without a prescription, Electrolytic precipitate treatment diarrhea purchase thyroxine 125 mcg with visa, powdered gold Manipulation: Removal of surface impurities and compaction of direct filling gold treatment ulcer thyroxine 25 mcg without a prescription. Physical properties of compacted Dental casting alloys Section B Historical background, desirable properties of casting alloys. Alternatives to cast metal technology: direct filling gold, amalgam, mercury free condensable intermetallic compound an alternative to metal casting process. Composition, function, constituents and application, each alloy both noble and base metal, Properties of alloys: Melting range, mechanical properties, hardness, elongation, modulus of elasticity, tarnish and corrosion. Biocompatibility Handling hazards & precautions of base metal alloys, casting investments used. Dental waxes including inlay casting wax Section B Introduction and importance of waxes: Sources of natural waxes and their chemical nature. Classification of Waxes: Properties: melting range, thermal expansion, mechanical properties, flow & residual stresses, ductility. Dental Wax: Inlay wax: Mode of supply: Classification & composition, Ideal requirements: Properties of inlay 10 2 wax: Flow, thermal properties Wax distortion & its causes. Casting Wax, Base plate wax, Processing wax, Boxing wax, Utility wax, Sticky wax, Impression wax for corrective impressions Bite registration wax. Dental casting investments Section A 11 Definition, requirements, classification Gypsum bonded classification. Phosphate bonded, Silica bonded Mode 2 of Supply: Composition, application, setting mechanism, setting time & factors controlling. Expansions: Setting Page 68 of 127 expansion, Hygroscopic Setting expansion, & thermal expansion: factors affecting. Technical considerations: For Casting procedure Preparation of die, Wax pattern, spruing, investing, control of shrinkage compensation, wax burnout, and heating the invested ring, casting. Soldering, brazing and welding Section B(Classes to be handled by orthodontics department) Need of joining dental appliances, Terms & Definition, Solders: Definition, ideal requirement, types of solders Soft & hard and their fusion temperature, application. Tarnish & corrosion resistance mechanical properties, microstructure of soldered joint. Fluxes & 2 Anti fluxes: Definition, Function, Types, commonly used fluxes & their selection Technique of Soldering & Brazing: free hand soldering and investment, steps and procedure. Wrought base metal alloys Section A (Classes to be handled by orthodontics department) Applications and different alloys used mainly for orthodontics purpose 1. Properties required for orthodontic wires, working range, springiness, stiffness, resilience, Formability, 3 ductility, ease of joining, corrosion resistance, stability in oral environment, bio compatibility Stainless steels: Description, type, composition & properties of each type. Wrought cobalt chromium nickel alloys, composition, allocation, properties, heat treatment, physical properties. Nickel Titanium alloys, shape, memory & super elastic Titanium alloys, application, composition, properties, welding, Corrosion resistance Dental cements Section B Definition & Ideal requirements of Dental Cements: Silicate, Glass ionomer, metal modified glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer, zinc oxide Euginol, modified zinc oxide Euginol, zinc phosphate, zinc silico phosphate, zinc poly carboxylate Cavity liners and cement bases Varnishes Calcium hydroxide. Agents for pulpal protection, Modifications and recent advances, Principles of cementation. Dental ceramics Section B Historical background & General applications of Dental ceramics: definition, classification, application, mode of supply, manufacturing procedure, methods of strengthening. Properties of fused ceramic: Strength and factors affecting, modulus of elasticity, surface hardness, wear resistance, thermal properties, specific gravity, chemical stability, esthetic properties, biocompatibility, technical considerations. Bonding using electro deposition, foil copings, bonded platinum foil, swaged gold alloy foil coping. Types of abrasives: Diamond, Emery, aluminum oxides garnet, pumice, Kieselgurh, tripoli, rouge, tin 16. Desirable 1 characteristics of an abrasive, Rate of abrasion, Size of particle, pressure and speed. Technical consideration, Material and procedure used for abrasion and polishing Electrolytic polishing and burnishing. Die and counter die materials including electroforming and electro polishing Section A 17. Waste disposal Section B At the end of the course the student should have the knowledge about the composition, properties, manipulative techniques and their various commercial names. The student should also acquire skills to select 20 1 and use the materials appropriately for laboratory and clinical use.
No longer the preserve of ‘aristocratic male heirs’ treatment rosacea buy cheap thyroxine online, the tour had started to medications ranitidine cheap 75 mcg thyroxine with amex come within the grasp of ‘less socially elevated and less well-educated people’ (Brewer 400 medications 100mcg thyroxine with amex, Pleasures,p. This gradual and very partial opening up of European travelling was disrupted by the French Revolution and by the twenty-odd years of nearly ceaseless con ict between France and Britain that followed it (c. A new vogue of domestic travel arose to ll this gap, impelled by several cultural currents that had been decades in the making. At the battle of Culloden in 1746, the last signi cant Jacobite rebellion against the Hanoverian monarchs was decisively defeated, putting an end to any realistic threat that the Catholic, Scottish Stuarts might reimpose 42 the Grand Tour and after (1660–1840) themselves upon Britain. Looking back over the cultural developments of the subsequent half-century or so, it seems as if the demise of Jacobitism as a viable political force and the dissolution of many Celtic communities in the Highlands of Scotland made safe, and ushered in, new fascinations with the Celtic fringe of Great Britain and, a bit later, new ‘Gothic’ fantasies about the countries where the dark mysteries of Catholicism held sway. In 1760, James Macpherson published Fragments of Ancient Poetry, Collected in the Highlands of Scotland. Controversy about the works’ authenticity raged for decades, but this only lent notoriety to Macpherson’s books and whetted the appetite of southern Scots and Englishmen to explore, in actual or in imaginary travels, the once shunned landscapes of the Highlands. Even the inveterate Londoner Samuel Johnson, who denounced Macpherson’s works as frauds, was eager to visit the Scottish Highlands and Islands to see the ‘simplicity and wildness’ of ‘a system of life almost totally different’ from that of the civilised south. Dr Johnson’s verdict on Mull may stand for many similar judg ments rendered throughout his text: Mull appeared to the Sage of London as a place without culture, ‘where the climate is unkind, and the ground penurious. Traversing the Alps had been a necessary tribulation for the privileged young man en route to Italy: he would hire a team of voiturins to transport his carriage and luggage and have himself carried across in a chair called an ‘Alps machine’ – perhaps even shutting his eyes until the process was completed. As early as the 1760s, however, there began to be organised ‘day-trips out of Geneva for the express purpose of looking at glaciers and waterfalls’, and ‘the rst tourist inn was opened at Chamonix’ in 1765. The Duke of Atholl’s estate near Dunkeld featured a 43 james buzard summer house that came to be called ‘Ossian’s Hall’, in which a portrait of the bard could be hoisted away to reveal a large bay window giving onto the waterfall over which the house was perched. In 1803, Dorothy Wordsworth recorded the surprise of being confronted by this ‘splendid room, which was almost dizzy and alive with waterfalls[,]. A Lowlander himself, Scott began his lit erary career at the start of the nineteenth century by collecting ballads and songs from the border region between England and Scotland; but his fame was both magni ed and secured when he shifted his focus northward in the Lady of the Lake – set in the Trossachs – which appeared to noisy acclaim in 1810 and which almost instantly sent scores of tourists up to visit the scenes it depicted. A few years later came Scott’s rst (anonymously pub lished) novel, Waverley, or, ’This Sixty Years Since (1814), which conducted both a kind of imaginary tourism in time back to the days of the Jacobite uprising of 1745–6 and a highly self-conscious series of re ections on the intimate relationship of ction, tourism, and power – the power unevenly divided among the nations and regions of the new United Kingdom, and the power of authorship and arti ce to endow places with cultural iden tity and value. For the King’s two-week stay in Edinburgh, Scott orchestrated an elaborate Tartan fantasy, making Highland cultural accou trements of sometimes dubious historical authenticity stand for the diverse cultures of Scotland as a whole, and capping his ction’s own contributions to the touristic stereotypes of his country. While Macpherson’s volumes and Scott’s writings materially affected the attitudes and itineraries of actual travellers, Gothic ction initially functioned to supply imaginary substitutes for travel to southern European places inac cessible to the English during the Napoleonic era. Horace Walpole is usually credited with beginning the vogue of the Gothic with the Castle of Otranto (1764), but it was not until the 1790s that the mode really ourished. Ann Radcliffe’s thrilling tales of English women (and some men) imperilled by endish foreigners – the Romance of the Forest (1791), the Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), the Italian (1797) and others – made Italy’s mediaeval 44 the Grand Tour and after (1660–1840) ruined castles and murky abbeys attractively exciting to readers who would not be visiting them in the foreseeable future; the popularity of the Gothic lasted long enough to alter the tastes of those who might visit such places, once the wars with France had nished. By that time, Celticism and the Gothic had become almost inextricably bound up with a third strand of cultural and aesthetic attitudes that, like these, opposed Grand-Tour neo classicism and became underpinnings of the Romantic Movement. This was the picturesque, which needs to be explained in terms of its relationship to two other aesthetic ideas, those of the beautiful and the sublime. Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757) had challenged rationalist ideas about aesthetic experience by characterising the two opposed experiences of beauty and sublimity as complementary forms of sub-rational sensation. Aesthetic ex perience was not about making intellectual judgements (of proportion or symmetry, for example), but a matter of basic human instincts: the gentle curves, the soft and unthreatening contours Burke found in beauty appealed, he thought, to the male sexual desire that drove the species to reproduce itself; the ‘agreeable horror’ of the sublime addressed our impulse toward self preservation and afforded us the frisson of contemplating terrifying things from a position of safety. The picturesque arose in the last third of the eigh teenth century as a kind of mediator between these opposed ideas, capable of running the gamut from relatively mild English landscapes to the breathtak ing cataracts and chasms of the Alps in stormy weather. The names of two seventeenth-century landscape painters, Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa, became shorthand for the ‘placid’ and ‘wild’ extremities of the picturesque continuum. The picturesque was introduced into English cultural debate by the Reverend William Gilpin, who in Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. It was another decade before Gilpin tried his hand at theoretical de nition in the essay ‘On Picturesque Beauty’: the general thrust of his idea emerges in such passages as the following, which dwells upon what it takes to make an object t for 45 james buzard inclusion in the picturesque category. Not accidentally, the object in ques tion is a Palladian, neoclassically regular and orderly, piece of architecture. In such a work, Gilpin writes, [t]he proportion of its parts – the propriety of its ornaments – and the sym metry of the whole, may be highly pleasing. Sir Uvedale Price attempted to subject Gilpin’s concept to some theoretical rigour in his 1794 Essay on the Picturesque, which developed and even exaggerated Gilpin’s tendency to isolate visual considerations from any historical, political, or moral ones that may arise from looking at irregu lar, anti-classical landscapes, ruins, or even ruined people – the ragged poor, viewed from a discreet distance. This aestheticised approach caught on with travellers who were more or less con ned to exploring their own island during the years of war with France: among them were William and Dorothy Wordsworth, whose Wye Valley tour gave rise to one of the most famous of all Romantic poems, ‘Tintern Abbey’ (1798). Picturesque-hunters began crowding into Words worth’s own Lake District, using their ‘Claude glasses’ – tinted portable mirrors – to frame and darken the scenes they visited, making innumerable sketches and giving vent to effusions on the picturesque glories of the region.
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As Philip Collins (2013) writes: The structure of the labour market changed markedly during the 20th century treatment 3 phases malnourished children buy thyroxine mastercard. By the time John Braine wrote Room at the Top [in 1957] treatment resistant depression order 200mcg thyroxine, that had risen to symptoms 5-6 weeks pregnant buy discount thyroxine 125mcg line 42 per cent. The point that politicians often fail to grasp is that the dramatic transformation of the labour market in the post war period cannot be repeated. T ose who call for ‘a sec ond wave of social mobility’ (Shackle 2009) seem unaware of the fact that the frst wave had little, if anything, to do with improvements in relative mobility or the expansion of higher education. It was due to structural changes in the labour market which are unlikely to happen again. Goldthorpe’s view is that future improvements in abso lute mobility will continue to be gradual and, insofar as they depend on government action at all, ‘will need to be through economic rather than educational policy: that is, through policy aimed at economic growth’ (Goldthorpe 2012: 17). The weight of evidence indicates that there has been, at most, only a small improvement in fuidity be tween the classes in recent decades. There is much work to be done to make sure that people are not unduly hindered by accidents of birth, especially if government policy en trenches the position of particular professions and groups in society. The important thing is that capable people are rewarded according to their ability and that productivity is allowed to grow so that the vast majority enjoys better wages than their parents. The gloomy picture of Britain’s ‘soul-sapping immobility’ is not supported by the evidence and it is quite wrong to claim that those who are born poor will ‘invari ably’ die poor. On the contrary, the majority of those who are born poor swiftly move up the income ladder, and al most all become wealthier than their parents. In Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramowitz (ed. Economist Intelligence unit (2005) The Economist Intelligence unit’s quality-of-life index. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Work ing Conditions (2008) Revisions to the European Working Time Directive: Recent Eurofund Research. Barnet Papers in Social Research, Department of Social Pol icy and Intervention, Oxford. Harwood Group (1995) Yearning for Balance: Views of Americans on Consumption, Materialism, and the Environment. Centre for Economic Perfor mance, London School of Economics and Political Science. Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission (2013) State of the Nation 2013: Social Mobility and Child Poverty in Great Britain. Erasmus Hap piness Economics Research Organization, Working Paper 2013/1, 23 January. Its mission is to improve understanding of the fundamental institutions of a free society by analysing and expounding the role of markets in solving economic and social problems. It is independent of any political party or group and does not carry on activities intended to afect support for any political party or candidate in any election or referendum, or at any other time. Members of the Institute’s Academic Advisory Council, Honorary Fellows, Trustees and Staf are listed on the following page. The Institute gratefully acknowledges financial support for its publications programme and other work from a generous benefaction by the late Professor Ronald Coase. In the case of the philosophical myths, such as the idea that economists believe that everybody is greedy, the author, Christopher Snowdon, carefully and entertainingly unpicks the misguided ideas that have taken hold. The author then moves on and efectively disposes of a number of economic myths using empirical evidence that is ofen ignored by commentators. This book is essential reading for all who wish to separate fact from fiction when it comes to understanding economic reasoning and evidence. Retrospective studies have shown that the presence of drug resistance before starting a new drug regimen is an independent predictor of virologic response to that regimen (DeGruttola et al. Prospective studies have shown that patients whose physicians have access to drug resistance data, particularly genotypic resistance data, respond better to therapy than control patients whose physicians do not have access to the same data (Baxter et al. As a result, innumerable genetically distinct variants (quasispecies) evolve in individuals in the months following primary infection (Coffin, 1995). Some mutations selected during drug therapy confer measurable phenotypic resistance by themselves, whereas other mutations increase resistance when present with other mutations or compensate for the diminished replicative activity that can be associated with drug resistance.
They have no iron 3 medications that cannot be crushed buy discount thyroxine 25 mcg on line, their javelins being without it symptoms 5 days past ovulation buy thyroxine online now, and nothing more than sticks symptoms 24 hour flu purchase generic thyroxine line, though some have fsh-bones or other things at the ends. In his entry of October 13, 1492, Columbus recalled that “The natives are an inoffensive people, and so desirous to possess anything they saw with us, that they kept swimming off to the ships with whatever they could fnd. That evening they came again with more fsh and roots and brought their women and children to look at us. They thought themselves rich with the little bells and beads we gave them, and they repeated their visits on other days. According to Cortes, Moctezuma remarked: “We believe that the King of Spain is our natural lord”11 In his second letter to Charles V, Cortes remarked that the people of the Aztec Empire appeared willing to accept Christianity as the true religion, saying, “if I would instruct them in these matters, and make them understand the true faith, they would follow my directions, as being for the best. He wrote: “[D]uring the whole period of my abode in that city, they were never seen to kill or sacrifce a human being. The events that took place during these two short years were documented in a number of chronicles, of which the best known are the letters Cortes wrote to King Charles I of Spain, who was also Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the True History of the Conquest of Mexico by Bernal Diaz del Castillo. Until recently these two works, along with a few others also written by Spaniards, were almost the only basis on which historians have judged the conquest of one of the greatest civilizations in pre-Columbian America. These documents tell the story only from the point of view of the Spanish, but now another source has been added to the mix. Broken Spears: An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, draws from indigenous accounts to present a different picture of the Spanish and their relations with the Indians. Page | 80 Page | 80Page | 80 Chapter three: InItIal ContaCt and Conquest It was not surprising that the Aztec Empire would fall to the Spanish, despite the fact that the Spanish soldiers under Cortes numbered 600 and were faced by an Aztec army of thousands. One reason for the Spanish success was due to their military tactics and weaponry. The Mexica people, of whom Moctezuma was the head, and their allies fought with bows and arrows and spears, while the Spanish were protected by steel armor, wielded steel swords, and had the advantage of attacking on horseback. In addition, the Spanish found unexpected allies in the tribes that were previously forced Figure 3. No Author: Unknown Source: Library of Congress small part of Spanish success came from the inadvertent introduction of smallpox into Tenochtitlan resulting in the deaths of thousands in the city in 1521. For many decades, historians argued that another factor could be found in Aztec religious beliefs that Quetzalcoatl, a white-skinned god, would, at an undisclosed time, arrive in the Empire. Bernal Diaz offered an explanation about the origin of this belief when he commented in his True History of the Conquest of Spain, “The Indians thought the rider and the horse were the same body, as they had never seen a horse. The myth appears to have originated about forty years after the conquest in documents such as the Florentine Codex, an Aztec history produced by young Aztec men in Spanish schools. In these documents, the Spanish are referred to as teotls, a word that can mean either god or demon in Nahuatl, the spoken language of the Mexica. It was, he remarked, “so big and so remarkable [as Page | 81Page | 81 Page | 81 Chapter three: InItIal ContaCt and Conquest to be]almost unbelievable, for the city is much larger than Granada and very much strongerwith many more people than Granada had when it was taken[It] is as large as Seville or Cordova. Despite their advantages, the Spanish did not defeat the Aztec coalition outright; rather they experienced a resounding defeat at the hands of the Indians in 1520 and were forced to fee the capital city. Those who were captured by the Aztecs were sacrifced at the pyramid of Huitzilopochtli; this occurred on the night of June 30-July 1, 1520, called La Noche Triste (The Sad Night) by the Spaniards. But this defeat was only a temporary setback for the Spanish, who received aid from an unexpected source: in 1521, smallpox struck Tenochtitlan. Miguel Leon-Portilla includes an Aztec account in which a native bemoaned the condition of the city’s inhabitants: “We were covered with agonizing sores from head to foot. Those struck by the disease were too weak to move, and even if they survived, were in no condition to cultivate food. On August 21, 1521, the Spanish re-entered the city, overwhelmed its last defenses, declared victory, and accepted the surrender of the remaining native warriors. Bernal Diaz wrote some years later that the Spaniards “found the houses full of corpses, and some poor Mexicans still in [the houses] who could not move awayThe city looked as though it had been ploughed up. The roots of any edible greenery had been dug out, boiled and eaten, and they had even cooked the bark of some of the trees. According to Spanish accounts, the Aztecs ripped out the hearts of war captives in an effort to appease such gods as Huitzilopochtli. Such sacrifce took place the wanton destruction of on La Noche Triste, according to Spanish sources. Tenochtitlan symbolized the Spanish Author: Codex Magliabechiano, artist unknown Source: Library of Congress attitude toward the Americas, Page | 82 Page | 82Page | 82 Chapter three: InItIal ContaCt and Conquest which were for conquest, ownership, and exploitation. The contemporary accounts of Cortes, Bernal Diaz, and the Spanish historian Francisco Lopez de Gomara refected the attitude of the Crown: the Americas were a new Spanish Empire and the natives, Spanish vassals.