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The upper aerodigestive tract should be evaluated serially with fexible laryngoscopy to primary hiv infection symptoms rash cheap 100 mg mebendazole mastercard follow the evolution of the injury hiv infection statistics europe discount mebendazole 100 mg with amex. If acute upper airway obstruction is impending or immi nent hiv infection incubation period order cheap mebendazole, the most experienced clinician in airway management should intubate the patient and secure the airway. Once an inhalation injury is diagnosed, a multidisciplinary team consisting of otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, and respiratory therapists should be utilized to maxi mize pulmonary and respiratory care. During surgical repair, the endolarynx is generally best approached through a midline thyrotomy, along with a transverse incision through the cricothyroid membrane. If a concomitant median or paramedian vertical thyroid fracture happens to be present, it may also be used to gain access to the endolarynx. If the fracture is located more than 3 mm from the anterior commissure, however, a midline thyrotomy should still be performed. All major endolaryngeal lacerations should be repaired with 5-0 or 6-0 absorbable suture. Even minor lacerations that involve the true vocal cord margin or anterior commissure should be closed. If the anterior attachment of the true vocal cord is severed, it should be resuspended by suturing the anterior end of the cord to the external perichondrium. After tracheotomy, the patient with signifcant laryngeal edema should be evaluated with direct laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy to uncover subtle injuries that may be masked by the edema and missed in initial fexible fberoptic laryngoscopy. Adjunctive measures, such as head-of bed elevation, corticosteroids, anti-refux medications, and humidifca tion should be strongly considered. Small, nonprogressing hematomas with intact mucosal coverage are likely to resolve spontaneously without signifcant sequelae. Adjunctive therapies, such as steroids, anti-refux medication, humidifcation, and head-of-bed elevation are helpful. Large or expand ing hematomas may lead to airway obstruction and necessitate placement of a tracheotomy. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after blunt laryngeal trauma may be due to either stretching of the nerve or nerve compres sion near the cricoarytenoid joint. While vocal fold mobility will not be regained after even a successful repair due to the mixture of abductor and adductor fbers in the nerve, neural regeneration may prevent muscle atrophy, resulting in improved vocal cord tone and vocal strength in the long term. Displaced thyroid and cricoid cartilage fractures should be reduced and fxed to stabilize the laryngeal framework (Figure 8. If the displaced cartilage fracture occurs in conjunction with an endolaryngeal, soft tissue injury, the cartilage reduction and fxation should be performed prior to endolaryngeal soft tissue repair. This ensures that a proper scafold is obtained before redraping the laryngeal mucosa. If no soft tissue injury accompanies the cartilage fracture, the cartilage may be fxed externally without entering the larynx. Thyroid fractures fxed with wire or suture tend to heal by fbrousnot cartilaginousunion, and often fail to maintain proper anatomic reduction. In particular, wire fxation poorly maintains the proper anatomic position of the thyroid laminae after fxation, allowing midline fractures to heal in an inappropriately fattened position. When placing a miniplate into the soft cartilage of younger patients, it is often helpful to drill a smaller-than-usual screw hole that results in better purchase for fxation of the screw. Most patients with laryngotracheal separation present with signifcant respiratory distress and require a tracheotomy. Performance of the tracheotomy can be extremely difcult, however, because of the altered anatomy that results from this injury. After laryngotracheal separation, the larynx usually pulls upward and the trachea retracts into a position behind the sternum, necessitating a low tracheotomy incision. Pneumothorax commonly accompa nies a laryngotracheal separation and must be promptly identifed and treated. Following appropriate trauma evaluation and radiologic studies, the patient should return to the operating room for direct laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy, and tracheal repair.
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The uncus kleenex anti viral walmart mebendazole 100mg low cost, which represents the homonymous hemianopsia; bilateral compres bulging medial surface of the amygdala within sion causes cortical blindness (see Patient 31) hiv infection mouth ulcers order mebendazole 100mg mastercard. The oculomotor supratentorial mass lesions is the close prox nerves cross the posterior cerebral artery and imity of the oculomotor nerve to hiv infection rates in africa order generic mebendazole on line the posterior Figure 33. Excess mass in one compartment can lead to herniation of the cingulate gyrus under the falx. Note the vulnerability of the oculomotor nerve to both her niation of the medial temporal lobe and aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery. The basilar artery is tethered at the top to the posterior cerebral arteries, and at its lower end to the vertebral arteries. As a result, either upward or downward herniation of the brainstem puts at stretch the paramedian feeding vessels that leave the basilar at a right angle and supply the paramedian midbrain and pons. The posterior cerebral arteries can be compressedby themedialtemporallobeswhentheyherniatethroughthetentorialnotch. Compression around the lateral surface of the midbrain and of the oculomotor nerve by either of these struc follow the third nerve through the petroclinoid tures results in early injury to the pupillodilator ligament into the cavernous sinus. Because the 37 bers that run along its dorsal surface;hence, free edge of the tentorium sits over the posterior a unilateral dilated pupil frequently heralds a edge of the inferior colliculi, severe trauma that neurologic catastrophe. The 40 surface ofthe midbrain justcaudaltothe inferior trochlearnervesmayalsobeinjuredinthisway. Usually, a small portion of the cerebellar tonsils protrudes into the aper ture (and may even be grooved by the poste rior lip of the foramen magnum). However, when the cerebellar tonsils are compressed against the foramen magnum during tonsillar herniation, compression of the tissue may compromise its blood supply, causing tissue infarction and further swelling. Patterns of Brain Shifts That Contribute to Coma There are seven major patterns of brain shift: falcine herniation, lateral displacement of the diencephalon, uncal herniation, central trans tentorial herniation, rostrocaudal brainstem de terioration, tonsillar herniation, and upward brainstem herniation. The rst ve patterns are caused by supratentorial mass lesions, whereas tonsillar herniation and upward brainstem her niation usually result from infratentorial mass Figure 35. Note that the course of the oculo Falcine herniation occurs when an expanding motornervetakes it alongthemedial aspect ofthe temporal lesion presses the cerebral hemisphere medially lobewhereuncalherniationcancompressitsdorsalsurface. The compression of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries causes ischemia in the medial wall of the cerebral hemi the abducens nerves emerge from the ven spherethatswellsand further increasesthecom tral surface of the pons and run along the ven pression. Eventually, the ischemia may advance tral surface of the midbrain to enter the cavern to frank infarction, which increases the cerebral 44 ous sinus as well. This pro sions unless they invade the cavernous sinus or cess may be monitored by displacement of the displace the entire brainstem downward. Hence, correlated with the degree of impairment of con just as progressive enlargement of a supraten sciousness: 0 to 3 mm is associated with alert torial mass lesion inevitably results in hernia ness, 3 to 5 mm with drowsiness, 6 to 8 mm with 1 tion through the tentorial opening, continued stupor, and 9 to 13 mm with coma. Here the medulla, the cere ward over the free tentorial edge into the ten bellar tonsils, and the vertebral arteries are torial notch (Figure 32). In contrast to central Structural Causes of Stupor and Coma 101 herniation, in which the rst signs are mainly sciousness may make it impossible to test visual those of diencephalic dysfunction, in uncal her elds, but emerges as a concern after the crisis is niation the most prominent signs are due to past when the patient is unable to see on the pressure of the herniating temporal lobe on the side of space opposite the herniation. There is usually also evidence of some impairment of ocular motility by this stage, but it may be less apparent to the exam Patient 31 iner as the patient may not be sufciently awake either to complain about it or to follow com A 30-year-old woman in the seventh month of preg mands on examination. Her physicians planned to admit her to hos disclose eye movement problems associated pital, perform an elective cesarean section, and with third nerve compression. She was admitted to A second key feature of uncal herniation the hospital the day before the surgery. During the that is sufcient to cause pupillary dilation is night she complained of a more severe headache impaired level of consciousness. Upon awakening she com Nevertheless, the impairment of arousal is so plained that she was unable to see. Examination prominent a sign that in a patient with a uni revealed complete loss of vision including ability lateral xed and dilated pupil and normal level to appreciate light but with retained pupillary light of consciousness, the examiner must look for reexes. Pupillary di infarct involving the occipital lobes bilaterally (see lation from uncal herniation with a preserved Figure 36). Over the following week she gradu level of consciousness is rare enough to be the ally regained some central vision, after which it 46 became clear that she had severe prosopagnosia subject of case reports. Hence, the side of paresis is not helpful in Central transtentorial herniation is due to localizing the lesion, but the side of the en pressure from an expanding mass lesion on the larged pupil accurately identies the side of the diencephalon.
See Japanese encephalitis from Mycoplasma pneumoniae antiviral lip cream buy mebendazole with visa, 519 La Crosse hiv infection rates caribbean cheap 100mg mebendazole otc, 233t hiv infection rates us mebendazole 100mg line, 235, 931t from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 336, 341t from Listeria, 471472 from Pasteurella multocida, 542 from Lyme disease, 478t from pneumococci, 571 from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 481 from Prevotella, 249 from measles virus, 489 prophylaxis for, 680, 879880, 880t from mumps, 514 from Q fever, 599600 from mumps vaccine, 517 from rat-bite fever, 608 from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 519 from staphylococci, 664 from parainfuenza virus, 533 from Staphylococcus aureus, 653 Powassan, 232238, 233t, 932t from streptococci group A, 668669, 677 from rabies virus, 599 from streptococci group B, 682 from rubella virus, 629 from streptococci non-group A or B, 686 St. Louis, 232238, 233t, 932t from Yersinia enterocolitica, 795 from toxocariasis, 719 Endocervicitis, from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 336, 339t from toxoplasmosis, 721, 725 Endometritis from varicella, 774 from bacterial vaginosis, 247 from varicella vaccine, 784 from Chlamydia trachomatis, 276 Venezuelan equine. See Typhoid fever relapsing (Borrelia), 207t, 254255 from enterovirus infections, 315 from relapsing fever, 254 from epidemic typhus, 771 rheumatic, streptococcal infections and, 668, from Epstein-Barr virus infections, 318 671673, 673t, 677680, 679t from Escherichia coli infections, 321, 324 from rhinovirus infections, 619 from flariasis, 480 from rickettsial diseases, 620 from foodborne diseases, 923t924t from rickettsialpox, 622 from Fusobacterium, 331 Rocky Mountain spotted. See Rocky Mountain from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 352 spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii) Haverhill, 608609 from rotavirus infections, 626 hemorrhagic. See Febrile children indications for, 835t from varicella, 774 for pityriasis versicolor, 569 from varicella vaccine, 784 safety in pregnancy, 866t from Vibrio infections, 791 for sporotrichosis, 651 from West Nile virus infections, 792 for tinea capitis, 714 yellow, 233t for tinea pedis, 718 from Yersinia enterocolitica, 795 Flucytosine (5-fuorocytosine), 829 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, 795 adverse events from, 295, 832t, 863t Fever blisters, 399 for amebic meningoencephalitis, 227 Fibrosis, from granuloma inguinale, 344 for cryptococcosis, 295 Fidaxomicin, for Clostridium diffcile, 287 dosage of, 832t Fifth disease. See Parvovirus B19 infections indications for, 835t Filariasis for Naegleria fowleri infections, 227 in internationally adopted children, 197 safety in pregnancy, 866t lymphatic, 480481 Fluid therapy. See also specifc agents from Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, 336 for anthrax, 230 from pelvic infammatory disease, 548 for bite wounds, 205 Flat warts, 524 dosage of, beyond newborn period, 814t Flaviviridae, 207t. See also Foodborne diseases for varicella, 778 clinical syndromes associated with, 921, 922t925t Francisella tularensis infections (tularemia), 207t, staphylococcal, 652 768769, 918, 929t Web sites, See also subjects for Epstein-Barr virus infections, 321 starting with Tinea; specifc mycoses for human herpesvirus 6 infections, 416 Alternaria, 329t Gangrene Aspergillus. See Streptococcal group A (Streptococcus pyogenes) Cryptococcus neoformans, 294296, 835t infections Curvularia, 329t Gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), 284285 Exophiala, 330t Gastric aspirate, for tuberculosis diagnosis, 734, 739 Exserohilum, 330t Gastroenteritis and gastrointestinal infections. See subjects starting with Tinea from Entamoeba histolytica, 222225 transmission of, 929t from enteroviruses, 315 treatment of. See Rubella 341t342t, 343344 Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, 595598 chemoprophylaxis for, 184t, 185t, 343344 Get Smart Campaign, 802 in children Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, from hepatitis B, 369 chemoprophylaxis for, 184t, 185t Giardia intestinalis infections (giardiasis), 333335 diagnosis of, 177 in child care facilities, 141142 screening for, 182, 182t clinical manifestations of, 333, 923t social implications of, 180, 180t control measures for, 335 Chlamydia trachomatis infections with, 278 diagnosis of, 333334 clinical manifestations of, 336 epidemiology of, 333 control measures for, 343344 etiology of, 333 diagnosis of, 337338 hospital isolation for, 335 disseminated, 336, 340, 341t in internationally adopted children, 194 epidemiology of, 336 prevention of, 919 etiology of, 336 in recreational water use, 213 hospital isolation for, 343 transmission of, 930t in neonates treatment of, 334, 853t chemoprophylaxis for, 343, 880882, 881t Web sites clinical manifestations of, 336 See Escherichia coli infections dosage of, 832t Francisella, 768769 for tinea capitis, 713714 granuloma inguinale, 344345 for tinea corporis, 715 Haemophilus ducreyi, 271272 for tinea cruris, 717 Haemophilus infuenzae. See Haemophilus infuenzae for tinea pedis, 718 infections Growth delay, from hookworm disease, 411 Helicobacter pylori, 354356 Growth failure, from Blastocystis hominis, 252 Kingella kingae, 460461 Growth retardation Legionella pneumophila, 461462 from rubella, 629 meningococcal, 500509 from tuberculosis, 736 Moraxella catarrhalis, 513 Grunting respirations, from Escherichia coli Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 336344 infections, 321 Pasteurella multocida, 542543 Guanarito virus infections, hemorrhagic fever Prevotella, 249 from, 356358 rat-bite fever, 608609 Guillain-Barre syndrome Salmonella, 635640 from animal sera, 66 Shigella, 645647 from Campylobacter infections, 262 Spirillum minus, 608609 from Epstein-Barr virus infections, 318 Streptobacillus moniliformis, 608609 from foodborne diseases, 925t Vibrio, 789791 Immune Globulin Intravenous for, 61 Yersinia enterocolitica, 795797 from infuenza vaccine, 448, 451 Yersinia pestis, 569571 from pertussis vaccine, 566 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, 795797 from rabies vaccine, 605 Gram-positive infections from tetanus toxoid, 711712 actinomycosis, 220 from varicella vaccine, 784 Bacillus anthracis, 228232 from West Nile virus infections, 792 Bacillus cereus, 245247 Guinea worm (dracunculiasis), 537t, 851t Clostridium tetani, 707712 Gumma formation, in syphilis, 691 Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 308 Listeria, 471474 Mycobacterium leprae, 466469 pneumococcal. See specifc worms from rat-bite fever, 608 Hemagglutination assay from relapsing fever, 254 for adenoviruses, 222 from rhinovirus infections, 619 for cytomegalovirus, 302 from rickettsial diseases, 620 indirect. See Isolation in pregnancy, 404 Hospitalized children recurrent, 403404 infection control for. See also specifc diseases, typing of, 401 hospital isolation for vaginal, 247 isolation precautions, 167t169t Herpes zoster (shingles) occupational health and, 167, 171172 in child care facilities, 779 private room in, 162t163t, 167, 170 clinical manifestations of, 774775 isolation for, 161170 contact precautions for, 166 pet visits to, 173174 diagnosis of, 776777, 777t sibling visits to, 172173 epidemiology of, 775776 Web site, See Zoster vaccine Haemophilus infuenzae infections and, 347, 348t Herpesviruses, human. See Human papillomavirus infections Chlamydia trachomatis infections with, 278 Human bites, 203206 classifcation of, 418, 419t422t Bacteroides infections of, 249 clinical categories of, 419t422t chemoprophylaxis for, 204t, 205, 206t clinical manifestations of, 418419, 419t422t, epidemiology of, 203 423 hepatitis B transmission in, 146 coccidioidomycosis with, 291 Prevotella infections of, 249 cryptococcosis with, 294295 rabies transmission in, 601 cryptosporidiosis with, 296 treatment of, 203, 204t, 205 cyclosporiasis with, 300 Human bocavirus infections, 413414 cytomegalovirus infections with, 300, 303304 clinical manifestations of, 413 diagnosis of, 426430, 427t control measures for, 414 epidemiology of, 424426 diagnosis of, 413 Epstein-Barr virus infections with, 318 epidemiology of, 413 etiology of, 423424 etiology of, 413 genetic groups of, 423424 hospital isolation for, 414 giardiasis with, 334 treatment of, 413 gonococcal infections with, 338, 340 Human ehrlichiosis. See also specifc drugs control measures for, 527530 antiretroviral drugs for, 418419, 430439 diagnosis of, 526 Immune Globulin Intravenous for, 60 epidemiology of, 525 Web site, aidsinfo. See Cystoisosporiasis Intestinal syndrome, in anthrax, 228 (Cystoisospora belli) Intestinal tularemia, 768 Israeli tick typhus, 621 Intracranial pressure, increased, from meningococcal Itching. See Tetanus for pediculosis capitis, 545 Loeffer-like syndrome, from strongyloidiasis, 689 for pediculosis corporis, 772 Loffer syndrome safety in pregnancy, 866t from Ascaris lumbricoides, 239 for scabies, 642 from cutaneous larva migrans, 298 Linen, handling of, 162t, 164 Louseborne diseases. See Tuberculin skin test from Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, 518 Manual for Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, from paracoccidioidomycosis, 530 Web site. See Microimmunofuorescence antibody test Staphylococcus aureus infections, for Chlamydia trachomatis, 278 methicillin-resistant for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, 273 Methylprednisolone for Chlamydophila psittaci, 275 for anaphylaxis, 68t Microphthalmia, from rubella, 629 for histoplasmosis, 410 Microscopy. See also Darkfeld microscopy; Electron for Kawasaki disease, 458 microscopy Metorchis conjunctus infections, 852t for American trypanosomiasis, 735 Metronidazole for cryptosporidiosis, 297 adverse events from, 863t for flariasis, 480 for amebiasis, 224, 849t for granuloma inguinale, 344 for bacterial vaginosis, 248 for hookworm disease, 412 for Bacteroides infections, 250 for Leishmania, 464 for balantidiasis, 251, 850t for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 337 for Blastocystis hominis infections, 253 for Paragonimus, 533 for botulism, 283 for pediculosis capitis, 543 for clostridial myonecrosis, 285 for pityriasis versicolor, 568 for Clostridium diffcile infections, 286287 for scabies, 642 for Dientamoeba fragilis infections, 851t for schistosomiasis, 644 dosage of for tinea pedis, 718 beyond newborn period, 815t for toxocariasis, 719 for neonates, 809t for trichinellosis, 729 for Fusobacterium infections, 332 for Trichomonas vaginalis, 730 for giardiasis, 334, 853t Microsporidiosis, 510511 for Helicobacter pylori infections, 355 clinical manifestations of, 510 for microsporidiosis, 511 control measures for, 511 for pelvic infammatory disease, 552t diagnosis of, 511 safety in pregnancy, 866t epidemiology of, 511 for tetanus, 708 etiology of, 510 for trichomoniasis, 184t, 185t, 730731, 860t hospital isolation for, 511 for vaginitis, 822t, 823t treatment of, 511, 857t Micafungin, 830 Microsporum audouinii infections, 712714 adverse events from, 833t Microsporum canis infections for candidiasis, 266268 tinea capitis, 712714 dosage of, 833t tinea corporis, 714716 Mice, diseases transmitted by. See Rodentborne Microsporum infections, 929t diseases Military personnel, children of, vaccines for, 97 Miconazole Milk adverse events from, 838t dairy, infections from for amebic meningoencephalitis, 227 brucellosis, 256258 for candidiasis, 266267, 827t Campylobacter, 262264 for Naegleria fowleri infections, 227 prevention of, 917918 safety in pregnancy, 866t human. See Rodentborne 262 diseases Miltefosine Mouse mite, in typhus spread, 620 adverse events from, 863t Mouth disorders. See Candidiasis Mucormycosis, 330t, 835t Monkeypox virus infections, 933t Mulberry molars, from syphilis, 690 Monobactams, dosage of, beyond newborn period, Multibacillary leprosy, 466, 468 815t Multicentric Castleman disease, from human herpes Monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection assays, virus 8, 416 for Salmonella, 636 Multidrug-resistant agents. See also Catborne diseases; Dogborne diseases from Prevotella, 249 in child care facilities, 151 Permethrin, for disease prevention disease transmitted by, 216, 217218t adverse events from, 864t for hospitalized children, 173174 leishmaniasis, 466 nontraditional, 216, 216t, 217t218t mosquitoborne, 211 ticks on, 209 pediculosis, 544, 854t Petechiae safety in pregnancy, 867t from Arcanobacterium haemolyticum infections, 238 scabies, 642, 858t from arenavirus infections, 356 tickborne disease, 208 from Borrelia infections, 254 Personality disorders, from amebic meningo from Bunyaviridae infections, 358 encephalitis, 225 from dengue fever, 305 Person-to-person transmission.
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The driver may request a replacement copy of the certificate from the medical examiner or get a copy of the certificate from the motor carrier lysine antiviral buy generic mebendazole 100mg. Each title is divided into chapters antiviral proteins secreted by t cells purchase generic mebendazole line, which usually bear the name of the issuing agency hiv infection rates us buy online mebendazole. When the certification decision does not conform to the recommendations, the reason(s) for not following the medical guidelines should be included in the documentation. Four of the standards: vision, hearing, epilepsy, and diabetes mellitus have objective disqualifiers that do not depend on medical examiner clinical interpretation. For the other nine "discretionary" standards, the medical examiner makes a clinical judgment in accordance with the physical qualification requirements for driver certification. Table 1 Medical Regulations Summary Table To view the regulations in the Medical Regulations Summary Table, visit. Important Definitions Regulation Definitions the medical examiner should become familiar with frequently used terms in the context of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations and the medical examiner role. Has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating, or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds) or more, whichever is greater; or 2. Is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation; or 3. Is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver, and is not used to transport passengers for compensation; or 4. Is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under 49 U. Between two places in a State through another State or a place outside of the United States; or 3. Intrastate Commerce: Intrastate commerce means any trade, traffic, or transportation in any State which is not described in the term "interstate commerce. For purposes of subchapter B, this definition includes the terms "employer" and "exempt motor carrier. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 requires drug and alcohol testing of safety sensitive transportation employees in aviation, trucking, railroads, mass transit, pipelines, and other transportation industries. There are times when a medical examiner may have interactions with healthcare professionals who perform services in the drug and alcohol testing program. A safety risk in any one or more of these commercial operations components can endanger the safety and health of the public. Thus, an estimated 3 to 4 million physical examinations must be performed annually, with the demand increasing every year. Commercial driver medical fitness for duty records must include all Federal physical qualification requirements found on the Medical Examination Report form. Truck and bus companies may also have additional medical requirements, such as a minimum lifting capability. Stat Regulations States regulate intrastate commerce and commercial drivers who are not subject to Federal regulations. You are responsible for ensuring that only the driver who meets the Federal physical qualification requirements is issued a Medical Examiners Certificate. You may also, at any time, certify the driver for less than 2 years when examination indicates more frequent monitoring is required to ensure medical fitness for duty. All of these can interfere with the ability to drive safely, thus endangering the safety and health of the driver and the public. The Job of Commercial Driving Stress Factors Associated with Commercial Driving Many factors contribute to making commercial driving a stressful occupation. With a straight through haul or cross-country route, the driver may spend a month on the road, dispatched from one load to the next. The driver usually sleeps in the truck and returns home for only 4 or 5 days before leaving for another extended period on the road. In team operation, drivers share the driving by alternating 5-hour driving periods with 5-hour rest periods. Long hours and extended time away from family and friends may result in a lack of social support. The driver may encounter adverse road, weather, and traffic conditions that cause unavoidable delays. Transporting hazardous materials, including explosives, flammables, and toxics, increases the risk of injury and property damage extending beyond the accident site.
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